Plants

Purple coneflower

Echinacea purpurea

Eva Monning Eva MonningVerena Schmidt Verena Schmidt

Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) is a pretty shrub for sunny flower beds and also an insect magnet. Here’s the correct way to plant and care for this shrub.

Growth type
  • Perennial plant
Growth height (from)
from 80.00cm to 100.00cm
Growth width (from)
from 40.00cm to 50.00cm
Growth characteristics
  • upright
  • horst-forming
  • bushy
Flower color
  • yellow
  • orange
  • red
  • white
  • multicolored
Flowering time (month)
  • July to September
Flower shape
  • Flowercups
  • Tongue blossoms
Flower characteristics
  • lightly fragrant
  • unfilled
  • slightly filled
Leaf color
  • green
page format
  • ovate
  • toothed
Fruit color
  • white
Fruit shape
  • Fissile Fruit
Fruit characteristics
  • long lasting
Light
  • sunny to semi-shade
Soil type
  • gravelly to loamy
Soil Moisture
  • moderately dry to fresh
ph value
  • weakly alkaline to weakly acidic
Lime compatibility
  • lime-tolerant
Nutrient requirements
  • nutrient-rich
Humus
  • rich in humus
Decorative or utility value
  • Flower Decoration
  • medicinal plant
  • Nectar or pollen plant
Toxicity
  • non-toxic
Winter Hardness
  • hardy
Climate zones according to USDA
  • 4
areas of life
  • FR1
  • FR2
  • B1
  • B2
Use
  • Flowerbeds
  • Bouquets
  • Single position
  • Group planting
  • Planters
  • Rebates
Garden style
  • Pharmacy Garden
  • cottage garden
  • Flower garden
  • Prairie Garden
  • Pot garden

Origin

The Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), also known as the Hedgehog Coneflower, is a very popular garden shrub from the daisy (Asteraceae) family, which originates from the North American prairies. The native Americans have long considered the wild shrub as an anti-septic healing plant, and it is used in many cold remedies today.

In 1696, the shrub was brought to England for the first time and described by the botanist Leonard Plukenet (1642–1706) as "Chrysanthenum americanum", as he discovered it had similarities with garden chrysanthemums. Carl von Linné gave the species the name Rudbeckia purpurea in 1753, thereby assigning it to the genus Rudbeckia. It was only in 1794 that the genus was given its current name Echinacea by Conrad Moench (1744–1805). In the meantime, Rudbeckia and Echinacea have been assigned to two different botanical genera. The Purple Coneflowers have not officially been closely related to the Yellow Coneflower (Rudbeckia) for several years, although the plants appear very similar at a first glance. However, the extent of the relationship between the two shrubs remains a heated topic among botanists. However, clear differences can be determined if we compare the two shrubs with one another.

Pink Coneflower

All variants of the vibrantly colorful coneflower are some of the most popular summer shrubs

The description “Hedgehog Coneflower” is an indication of the spikey texture of the flower heads. The botanical name Echinacea is derived from the Greek word "echinos", which also means “spiny one”. There are now numerous vibrantly colorful breeds of Echinacea purpurea.

Growth

The Purple Coneflower forms upright clumps. Bristly stems shoot upright from a strong tap root, with numerous vertical growing lateral roots. The shrub grows 32 to 39 inches tall.
The plant parts above the soil freeze in the winter, however, the Echinacea purpurea reliably grows new shoots in the spring.

Coneflower blossoms

The Echinacea purpurea is sometimes called “hedgehog cone” due to the spiny flower heads

Leaves

The basal leaves are ovate, serrated, coarsely hairy, dark green and up to 6 inches long. The stem leaves are somewhat smaller.

Flowers

The 2.36 to 4.72 inch wide, daisy-like flower heads with purplish-pink colored ray florets and a highly cone-shaped, brownish-red center, known as the cone, appear between July and September. However, there are now also varieties with white, yellow and orange-red flowers. The flowers magically attract butterflies and bees.

Echinacea purpurea ‘Tomato Soup’

Echinacea purpurea is no longer only available in pink and white, the color palette now ranges from yellow to orange and tomato red (pictured: ‘Tomato Soup’)

Fruit

Echinacea purpurea formsgrayish-white seedpods, known as achenes, which reach up to 0.04 inches long.

Location

The striking bush requires a sunny location. It can also manage in semi-shade, however, in such locations it will put out fewer flowers.

Soil

The Purple Coneflower thrives best in nutrient-rich, permeable and lighter soils.

Planting

The plant is relatively short-living, which is why it should be cut back to a hand’s width straight after flowering and divided every few years.

Care

Once the shrub has found its footing, it is relatively easy-care. It requires regular deadheading. Cutting back directly after flowering extends the lifespan. It also thrives well with the addition of compost in the spring and occasional dose of nettle liquid manure.

Dividing

After a few years, the Echinacea purpurea flowers less and does not create offshoots so readily. A rejuvenation measure through dividing helps here: Dig up the rootstock, divide it and replant the parts. This is best done every four to five years in the spring.

Utilization

Echinacea purpurea ‘Alba’

Echinacea has long enchanted the gardening world in white - and over the years, more and more new colors have been added

Echinacea purpurea looks very beautiful in sunny borders, for example in combination with asters, Goldenrod, decorative grasses or Rudbeckien. The nectar-rich shrub, which attracts numerous butterflies and bees, also performs well in free areas close to nature. The long peduncles make for impressive cut flowers.

Echinacea Purpurea as a Healing Plant

The Purple Coneflower has long been used by the Native inhabitants of North America as an anti-septic agent against inflammations. The shrub has also been known for many years in Europe for its effect as a natural healing agent: The above ground plant parts contain substances such as alkamides, essential oils and caffeic acid derivates and have a positive effect on the immune system. It contains substances which can also be used to help respiratory and urinary tract infections. Echinacea remedies are generally available in tablet or liquid form from a chemist for use on slow-healing wounds, psoriasis or herpes.

Varieties

Echinacea purpurea ‘Milkshake’

The ‘Milkshake’ variety has single-flower greenish-white blossoms and has received excellent ratings from the “Staudensichtung”

The Purple Coneflower, which traditionally flowers crimson, should be given a new name these days, as its old one no longer does it justice: It has long been available in white and the new varieties from the USA even have sulfur yellow to vibrant red flowers.

Gardening enthusiasts in America are particularly keen on the new crosses of Echinacea paradoxa and Echinacea purpurea with illustrious names such as ‘Sunrise’, ‘Sunset’ and ‘Harvest Moon’. These are winter-hardy and flower profusely, they have sensational new color tones, from light yellow to vibrant red.
The ‘Sunset’ variety, for example, has radiant, salmon orange petals around a copper-colored center. Some of the petals unfurl in this variety do not unfurl. This gives the flower a star-shaped appearance.

Echinecea purpurea ‘Harvest Moon’

‘Harvest Moon’ presents its flowers in vibrant yellow-orange and is also slightly fragrant

Equally vibrant in orange-red is the pompom-like double-flowered Echinacea ‘Hot Papaya’. The flowers appear as early as June and even give off a slight fragrance. The large flowers of the ‘Tiki Torch’ variety radiate like burning torches in pure orange. The variety ‘Tomato Soup’ is a vibrant tomato red, it was awarded 2 out of 3 stars in the “Staudensichtung”.

‘Green Envy’ is an unusual sight among Purple Coneflowers. The white-green petals change color from the center to the tips from pink to a delicate red shade. This color gradient and their stable stems makes them particularly suitable as cut flowers. The variety ‘Sunrise’ has up to 4.72 inch large flowers in a delicate light yellow with a green dome. It is also fragrant. ‘Green Jewel’ unfurls its sepal-shaped, light green petals around a dark green center. However, these beauties don’t come cheap as breeders have to protect all the innovations in their range. Therefore, garden centers have to pay very high license fees, which they pass on to the end customer.

Echinacea purpurea ‘Green Envy’

Echinacea purpurea ‘Green Envy’ has flowers with a fabulous color gradient from green to pinkish-red

Propagation

It is generally possible to sow seeds of this species. The varieties of Echinacea purpurea are best propagated through dividing in the spring.

Diseases and Pests

Echinacea purpurea is generally resistant to diseases and pests.

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